For instance if \(p\) is the peak hash rate for 365 periods or 1 year, made up of 144 blocks, \(h\) the hash rate of the last 144 blocks (1 day period), and \(r\) the base subsidy or reward for mining a block, which is currently 12.5 bitcoin, the maximum block reward can then be calculated using the formula \(0.5r (1 + h/p)\) , the lowest possible block reward being \(0.5r\) . At peak hashrate, the miner gets the full 12.5 BTC reward, otherwise the reward is determined based on the hashrate.
One of the main features intended for Bitcoin in the future is a native support for multisig payments and coinjoins, they are currently supported by the Blockchain but not in a native way and as such they do not have as much efficiency and privacy as desired. This is going to be the main focus of the next major update in Bitcoin, changing the signature scheme to Schnorr Signatures.
As a simplified alternative to Pay-to-Endpoint (P2EP - Pay-to-Endpoint), developer Ryan Havar proposed a BIP for a new coinjoins protocol that does not need changes to the current Bitcoin consensus and provides a simple, practical way to make coinjoin transactions that are indistinguishable from normal ones.
This is summary for a submission by Ruben Somsen on bitcoin-dev on censorship resistant transactions.
Bitcoin transactions with light client wallets involve addition of transaction fees as incentive for miners to include the transaction to the blockchain through the process of mining. This creates a win-win situation.
First, without any specific conditions, miners get paid the fees provided the transaction gets included in a valid chain with the most proof-of-work.
Secondly, the user enjoys the benefit of his transaction being added to the blockchain. The fees also ensure the security of transaction on the network as miners cannot ignore the transactions or other miners will process it because it has a reward attached.
For the full node Bitcoin Core however, conditions for adding transactions to the blockchain are more specific, one of which is that transactions can only be added to a block with a block height that is one higher than the last.
A Testnet is an alternative Bitcoin Blockchain that is mostly used by
developers to test their code, test edge case transactions and other
development related subjects, the testnet is currently
1412193 blocks long and
takes about 2 days to fully sync.
This caused some conversation on the bitcoin-dev mailing list calling for a reset of the testnet to make it sync faster and use less disk data, while some developers called for this, others actually called for a larger blockchain compared to the mainnet to find size-related errors. Developers like Jimmy Song and Johnson lau called for the existence of two testnets, one small and one large.